Five tips to prevent engineering machinery failure

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Five tips to prevent construction machinery failure and prolong service life

due to the influence of materials, processes, aging parts and human factors, construction machinery will inevitably have various failures in use. However, if we can correctly analyze the causes of various faults, take effective and targeted preventive measures by setting different experimental speeds and parameters in the experimental process, and try to slow down the damage speed of mechanical parts, we can effectively prevent mechanical faults and prolong the service life of machinery

1. Minimize the impact of harmful factors

(1) reduce the impact of mechanical impurities

mechanical impurities generally refer to non-metallic substances such as dust and soil, as well as some metal chips and wear products produced by construction machinery in the process of use. Once these impurities enter the interior of the machine and reach between the mating surfaces of the machine, their harm is great. They not only make the relative movement out of the resistance, but also pay attention to three kinds of 2D materials similar to graphene: 1 is 2D silicon silicone hysteresis, which accelerates the wear of parts, but also scratch the mating surface, damage the lubricating oil film, raise the temperature of parts and deteriorate the lubricating oil. It is determined that when the mechanical impurities in lubrication increase to 0.15%, the wear rate of the first piston ring of the engine will be 2.5 times higher than the normal value; When the rolling shaft enters the impurity particles, its service life will be reduced by 80%-90%. Therefore, for construction machinery working in places with poor environment and complex conditions, first, high-quality and supporting parts, lubricating oil and grease should be used to block the source of harmful impurities; Second, do a good job in the mechanical protection of the work site, ensure that the corresponding mechanism can work normally, and prevent all kinds of impurities from entering the machine. Try to go to a regular repair place to repair the faulty machinery. During on-site repair, protective measures should also be taken to prevent the parts replaced during on-site repair from being polluted by dust and other impurities before entering the machine

(2) reduce the influence of temperature

in work, the temperature of each part has its own normal range. For example, the temperature of the general cooling water is ℃, and the temperature of the hydraulic oil in the hydraulic transmission system is ℃, below or beyond this range will accelerate the wear of parts, cause the deterioration of lubricating oil, and cause the continuous transformation of research results into material performance changes, etc. The test shows that the wear of the main transmission gears and bearings of various construction machinery running in -5 ℃ lubricating oil is times greater than that running in 3 ℃ lubricating oil. However, when the temperature is too high, the deterioration of the lubricating oil will be accelerated. For example, when the oil temperature exceeds ℃, the oxidation rate of the oil will be doubled for every 5 ℃ increase in the oil temperature. Therefore, during the use of construction machinery, first, it is necessary to prevent overload operation under low temperature, ensure the normal operation of low-speed pre temperature stage, and make the machinery drive or work after reaching the specified temperature. Don't ignore its important role because there are no problems at that time; Second, the machine should be prevented from running under high temperature. During the operation of the machine, the values on various thermometers should be checked frequently, and if problems are found, the machine should be shut down immediately for inspection, and if faults are found, they should be eliminated in time. For those who can't find the reason for it at the moment, they must not make the machinery work with diseases without treatment. In normal work, pay attention to check the working condition of the cooling system. For water-cooled machinery, check and add cooling water before daily work; For air-cooled machinery, the dust on the air-cooled system should also be cleaned regularly to ensure that the cooling air duct is unblocked

(3) reduce all kinds of corrosion

the phenomenon that the metal surface is damaged by chemical or electrochemical interaction with the surrounding medium is called corrosion. This corrosion will not only affect the normal operation of the external equipment of the machine, but also corrode the internal parts of the machine. For example, chemicals in rain and air enter the interior of the machine through the external channels and cracks of mechanical parts, corrode the interior of mechanical parts, accelerate mechanical wear, and increase mechanical failure. Because this corrosive effect is sometimes invisible and untouchable, it is easy to be ignored, so it is more harmful. During use, the management and operation personnel shall take effective measures to reduce the impact of chemical corrosion on the machinery according to the local weather and air pollution at that time, with the focus on preventing the invasion of rainwater and other chemical components in the air

2. Ensure the normal working load

the size and nature of the working load of construction machinery have an important impact on the loss process of machinery. Generally speaking, the wear of parts increases proportionally with the increase of load. When the load borne by the part is higher than the average design load, its wear will intensify. In addition, when other conditions are the same, the stable load has less wear, fewer faults and lower service life than that under dynamic load. The test shows that the wear of the cylinder of the engine under unstable load will increase by two times compared with that under stable load. The engine working under normal load has low failure rate and long service life. On the contrary, if the engine is overloaded, the failure rate will increase significantly, and the service life will also be reduced compared with the design index. The wear of machines that are often in a wide range of load changes is greater than that of machines that work continuously and stably. In general, the engine used by the generator has a longer service life than that used by bulldozers, excavators, etc

ensuring normal working load mainly depends on the use of construction machinery by the operator. First, pay attention not to work under the maximum load that the machine can bear, and use the machine within your ability. As the management personnel of construction machinery, when assigning operators, they should hand over the attached data and operation manual of construction machinery to the operators, so that they can master the mechanical performance and operation procedures normally, and should not withhold the relevant data at will. Second, we should try to ensure the uniform increase and decrease of mechanical load, so that the machinery is in a relatively gentle load change. Specifically, we should increase and decrease the throttle more evenly to prevent the ups and downs of the engine and working devices

3. Ensure the reasonable lubrication of the machine

the wear of the working surface of parts, the corrosion of the surface of parts and the aging of materials are the three main replacement forms of mechanical parts under normal use conditions, and the failure caused by the wear of the working surface of parts accounts for the largest proportion. In other words, the wear of machinery is one of the main reasons for its various components to move towards the ultimate technical state. Then, solve the wear problem of mechanical parts. In addition to adopting excellent materials, selecting advanced manufacturing technology and designing reasonable mechanical structure, an important work to be done in the process of use is to ensure the reasonable lubrication of machinery. According to statistics, more than half of the failures of construction machinery are caused by poor lubrication. Due to the precision of the coordination of various parts of construction machinery, good lubrication can maintain normal working clearance and appropriate working temperature, so as to reduce the wear degree of parts and reduce mechanical failures. Normal and reasonable lubrication is one of the effective measures to reduce mechanical failures. For this reason, one is to select lubricants reasonably. Normal lubricant categories should be selected according to the types of machinery and application structures, appropriate quality groups should be selected according to the requirements of machinery, appropriate quality grades should be selected according to the requirements of machinery, and appropriate lubricant brands should be selected according to the working environment and different seasons of machinery. In use, neither low-grade lubricants nor other kinds of lubricants can be used, let alone inferior products. Second, the quantity and quality of lubricants should be checked frequently. If the quantity is insufficient, it should be supplemented in time, and if the quality is poor, it should be replaced in time. Under emergency conditions, those who use lubricant substitutes of different types and brands must clean the lubrication system afterwards and replace the normal lubricant in time

4. Timely maintenance

various faults are bound to occur during the use of machinery. Among these failures, some of them may have a minor impact on mechanical equipment, some of them are relatively serious, and even cause major accidents of machine destruction and human death. Experience shows that serious mechanical failures are often caused by some smaller failures. The reason lies in the neglect of the timely disposal of minor faults. Therefore, mechanical faults, regardless of size, should be eliminated in time, so as to maintain the normal performance of the machinery and reduce the possibility of causing greater faults. In a sense, dealing with the faults in time is an effective measure to reduce and prevent faults. The so-called timely treatment is to regularly maintain and repair the machinery according to the maintenance procedures. The maintenance and repair of various groups must be carried out as required. The existing maintenance and repair specifications are the summary of many years of practical experience, and they are scientific and reasonable. In the absence of major technological progress and innovation, these Regulations are absolute for the maintenance and repair of construction machinery, and must be followed. The second is to strengthen the regular and irregular inspection of construction machinery in the process of use, understand the operation of machinery in time, and deal with temporary faults in time, so as not to delay the maintenance opportunity and cause greater faults because the faults are small and do not affect the use

5. Take correct technical measures and organizational management measures

with the development of material science and design and manufacturing technology, many new technologies, new materials and new structures have been adopted in construction machinery, which requires that the technical support and management of machinery be more scientific and perfect. Therefore, as the organization, management and operation personnel of construction machinery, first, we should pay attention to ensure that the machinery is prevented from damage, deformation and corrosion during transportation and storage. Second, the daily maintenance of the machinery should be strictly enforced to keep the machinery in good technical condition. Third, it is necessary to educate operators to correctly use and operate various construction machinery to reduce and prevent mechanical failures caused by human errors. Fourth, the machinery should be carefully maintained. Regular and irregular maintenance should be carried out correctly and reasonably, the machinery should be kept clean and clean, the technical state of the machinery should be checked regularly, abnormalities should be handled in time, loose and misaligned parts should be fastened and adjusted in time, and some vulnerable parts should be replaced in a preventive manner

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